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國民經濟和社會發展計劃2019年執行情況與2020年草案的報告(1)(中英對照)

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Report on the Implementation of the 2019 Plan for National Economic and Social Development and on the 2020 Draft Plan for National Economic and Social Development

關於2019年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況與2020年國民經濟和社會發展計劃草案的報告

Delivered at the Third Session of the Thirteenth National People’s Congress on May 22, 2020

——2020年5月22日在第十三屆全國人民代表大會第三次會議上

National Development and Reform Commission

國家發展和改革委員會

Esteemed Deputies,

各位代表:

The National Development and Reform Commission has been entrusted by the State Council to deliver this report on the implementation of the 2019 plan and on the 2020 draft plan for national economic and social development to the Third Session of the 13th National People’s Congress (NPC) for your deliberation. The Commission also invites comments from members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

受國務院委託,現將2019年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況與2020年國民經濟和社會發展計劃草案提請十三屆全國人大三次會議審議,並請全國政協各位委員提出意見。

I. Implementation of the 2019 Plan for National Economic and Social Development

一、2019年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況

In 2019, under the strong leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, as well as the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, all regions and departments fully implemented the guiding principles of the 19th CPC National Congress and the second, third, and fourth plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee. We raised our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment; increased our confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; and resolutely upheld General Secretary Xi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole, and resolutely upheld the Party Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership. We faithfully executed the decisions and plans of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, implemented the Report on the Work of the Government and the 2019 Plan for National Economic and Social Development approved at the Second Session of the 13th NPC, and adopted the NPC Financial and Economic Affairs Committee’s suggestions based on its review of the 2019 plan. We followed the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, continued to apply the new development philosophy, advanced supply-side structural reform as our main task, pursued high-quality development, and took solid steps to ensure stability on six fronts.* We coordinated efforts to maintain stable growth, promote reform, make structural adjustments, improve people’s lives, guard against risks, and maintain stability. (*The six fronts refer to employment, the financial sector, foreign trade, foreign investment, investment, and expectations.) The main targets and tasks in economic and social development for the year were accomplished, and progress in achieving the main targets listed in the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) met our expectations. All of these successes laid a crucial foundation for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

2019年,在以習近平同志為核心的黨中央堅強領導下,各地區各部門以習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想為指導,深入貫徹黨的十九大和十九屆二中、三中、四中全會精神,增強“四個意識”、堅定“四個自信”、做到“兩個維護”,全面貫徹落實黨中央、國務院決策部署,認真執行十三屆全國人大二次會議審議批准的《政府工作報告》、2019年國民經濟和社會發展計劃,落實全國人大財政經濟委員會審查意見,堅持穩中求進工作總基調,深入貫徹新發展理念,堅持以供給側結構性改革為主線,推動高質量發展,紮實做好“六穩”工作,統籌推進穩增長、促改革、調結構、惠民生、防風險、保穩定,全年經濟社會發展主要目標任務較好完成,“十三五”規劃主要指標完成進度符合預期,為全面建成小康社會打下決定性基礎。

1. We conducted well-conceived macro regulation and kept major economic indicators within an appropriate range. We strengthened range-based, targeted, well-timed, and precision regulation, stepped up coordination between policies, and improved the management of expectations, thus promoting stable and healthy economic growth.

(一)科學實施宏觀調控,經濟運行保持在合理區間。加強區間調控、定向調控、相機調控、精準調控,加強政策協調配合,強化預期管理,促進經濟平穩健康發展。

1) Major macroeconomic targets were achieved. China’s gross domestic product (GDP) reached 99.1 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.1%, which was consistent with the projected target. A total of 13.52 million urban jobs were created, and the year-end survey-based and registered urban unemployment rates were 5.2% and 3.62% respectively. The consumer price index (CPI) rose by 2.9%. A basic equilibrium was maintained with regard to the balance of payments, and foreign exchange reserves were kept at over US$ 3 trillion.

一是主要宏觀指標完成情況良好。國內生產總值達到99.1萬億元,增長6.1%,符合預期目標。城鎮新增就業1352萬人,年末城鎮調查失業率、城鎮登記失業率分別為5.2%和3.62%。居民消費價格指數上漲2.9%。國際收支基本平衡,外匯儲備保持在3萬億美元以上。

2) Counter-cyclical macro policy regulation proved to be effective. With the focus on cutting taxes and fees, we implemented a proactive fiscal policy with greater intensity and better performance, continued to improve the structure of government spending, and ensured sufficient funding for major areas such as the improvement of living standards. Revenue in the national general public budget was 19.04 trillion yuan, an increase of 3.8%; expenditures totaled 23.89 trillion yuan, an increase of 8.1%; and the fiscal deficit was 2.76 trillion yuan, the same as the budgeted figure. Tax and fee reductions totaled 2.36 trillion yuan over the year. We appropriately expanded the range of uses for special local government bonds and quickened the pace of bond issuance. We maintained a prudent monetary policy with an appropriate level of intensity. Counter-cyclical regulation continued to have an effect, and the credit structure continued to improve, while the credit supply to the real economy, particularly to micro and small businesses and private enterprises, was increased further. At the end of 2019, growth in the M2 money supply was 8.7%, and aggregate financing grew by 10.7%. We made greater efforts to implement the policy of prioritizing employment, as well as the policy of refunding unemployment insurance premiums, and increased support for enterprises in keeping employment stable. A stable employment situation was generally maintained with regard to key groups such as college graduates, rural migrant workers, and demobilized military personnel.

二是宏觀政策逆週期調節有力有效。以減税降費為重點,積極的財政政策加力提效,財政支出結構持續優化,民生等重點領域資金需求得到有力保障。全國一般公共預算收入19.04萬億元,增長3.8%;全國一般公共預算支出23.89萬億元,增長8.1%;財政赤字2.76萬億元,與預算持平。全年減税降費2.36萬億元。合理擴大專項債券使用範圍,加快專項債券發行使用。穩健的貨幣政策鬆緊適度,逆週期調節效果持續顯現,信貸結構不斷優化,對實體經濟特別是小微企業、民營企業信貸投放力度進一步加大。年末廣義貨幣(M2)餘額增長8.7%,社會融資規模存量增長10.7%。更大力度實施就業優先政策,援企穩崗力度進一步加大,失業保險基金穩崗返還政策全面落實,高校畢業生、農民工、退役軍人等重點羣體就業總體保持穩定。

2. We moved forward with supply-side structural reform and promoted the formation of a strong domestic market. We adhered to our principles of consolidating the gains made in the five priority tasks, strengthening the dynamism of micro entities, upgrading industrial chains, and ensuring unimpeded flows in the economy. We consistently advanced industrial restructuring, and worked hard to keep circulation dynamic in order to ensure that market supply meets demand.

(二)深入推進供給側結構性改革,促進形成強大國內市場。堅持“鞏固、增強、提升、暢通”八字方針,持續推進產業結構調整,着力暢通供需循環。

1) Supply-side structural reform in agriculture was advanced. We made sustained efforts to ensure sufficient grain production, maintaining total grain output at over 650 million metric tons for the fifth year in a row. We adopted a strategy for securing the supply of major agricultural products and implemented a scheme to revitalize the production of soybeans. Functional zones for grain production and protective areas for the production of major agricultural products were established. Farmland irrigation and water conservancy continued to improve, with the total area of high-quality cropland increasing by 5.33 million hectares and the total area of farmland covered by efficient water-saving irrigation increasing by 1.33 million hectares. We continued our efforts to prevent and control African swine fever and accelerate the recovery of hog production, and improved the system for the production, supply, storage, and sale of vegetables. We refined the policy for setting minimum prices for state grain purchases and the policy for guaranteeing base prices for cotton. We advanced reform of the system for the state purchase and storage of major agricultural products and the reserve system for important agricultural supplies. Cold-chain logistics and storage facilities for agricultural products witnessed rapid development. We continuously promoted industrial integration in rural areas, resulting in the establishment of 107 modern agriculture industrial parks and 210 demonstration parks for integrated industrial development in rural areas. We also accelerated the formulation and improvement of a new policy framework to support and protect agriculture.

一是農業供給側結構性改革深入推進。毫不放鬆抓好糧食生產,糧食總產量連續第5年保持在1.3萬億斤以上。啓動重要農產品保障戰略,實施大豆振興計劃。糧食生產功能區、重要農產品生產保護區基本劃定。持續加強農田水利建設,完成8000萬畝高標準農田和2000萬畝高效節水灌溉任務。加強非洲豬瘟防控,加快恢復生豬生產,進一步完善蔬菜產供儲銷體系。完善糧食最低收購價政策和棉花目標價格政策,重要農產品收儲制度和重要農資儲備制度改革深入推進。農產品冷鏈物流倉儲設施及冷鏈運輸較快發展。農村產業融合發展持續推進,累計創建107個現代農業產業園、210個農村產業融合發展示範園。新型農業支持保護政策體系加快建立健全。

2) Transformation and upgrading of manufacturing picked up pace. We rolled out policies and measures to promote high-quality development of the manufacturing sector and released the Catalog of Industrial Structural Adjustments (2019). We continued to employ market- and law-based methods to cut outmoded coal production capacity by around 100 million metric tons, prudently moved forward with the merging and reorganization of steel enterprises, and implemented major petrochemical projects. We organized a new series of technological transformation projects, and promoted the demonstration and application of newly-developed equipment that was made in China such as Chinese standard type-A subway cars.

二是製造業轉型升級步伐加快。出台推動製造業高質量發展政策措施,發佈產業結構調整指導目錄(2019年本)。運用市場化、法治化辦法又淘汰煤炭落後產能1億噸左右,穩妥推進鋼鐵企業兼併重組,推動重大石化項目建設。實施新一輪技術改造工程,推動中國標準地鐵A型車等一批國產首台(套)技術裝備示範應用。

3) Solid steps were taken to promote high-quality development of the service sector. We introduced policies and measures on high-quality development of the service sector and transformation and upgrading of traditional service industries, stepped up the development of new forms and new models of business, and promoted the integrated development of advanced manufacturing and modern services. We supported the development of platforms for generic technology R&D, industrial design, and the industrial internet.

三是服務業高質量發展紮實推進。出台支持服務業高質量發展、傳統服務行業改造升級等政策措施,大力培育新業態新模式,推動先進製造業和現代服務業深度融合發展,支持共性技術研發、工業設計、工業互聯網等平台建設。

4) More support was provided to help reduce costs in the real economy. The rate of value added tax (VAT) was lowered from 16% to 13% in manufacturing and several other industries, and from 10% to 9% in industries such as transportation and construction. We implemented general-benefit tax cuts for micro and small businesses, raising the VAT threshold from 30,000 yuan to 100,000 yuan in monthly sales for small-scale taxpayers. We enabled all provincial-level regions to reduce the ratio of enterprise contributions to workers’ basic old-age insurance to 16%, and extended for another year the policy of temporary reduction of premiums for unemployment insurance and workers’ compensation. We deepened reforms to liberalize interest rates, with overall financing costs being notably reduced throughout society. We settled overdue payments of 664.7 billion yuan owed by government departments and state-owned enterprises (SOEs) to private enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We further cut the number of items in the catalog of government-set business service fees, and cancelled or lowered some administrative charges. The price of electricity for general industrial and commercial businesses was cut by another 10% on average, thus reducing electricity costs for businesses by 84.6 billion yuan for the year. We helped businesses save 79 billion yuan by enabling them to buy electricity directly from power generation companies. We lowered the prices for refined oil products, natural gas city gate prices, and prices for natural gas transmission through trans-provincial pipelines, lightening the burden on consumers by approximately 65 billion yuan. Through rescinding or cutting railway charges, port charges, and civil airport charges, we helped reduce the burden on businesses by more than 10 billion yuan.

四是支持實體經濟降成本力度加大。製造業等行業增值税税率從16%降至13%,交通運輸業、建築業等行業從10%降至9%,實施小微企業普惠性税收減免,小規模納税人增值税起徵點由月銷售額3萬元提高到10萬元。企業職工基本養老保險單位繳費比例高於16%的省份已全部降至16%,階段性降低失業、工傷保險費率政策延續一年。深化利率市場化改革,社會綜合融資成本明顯降低。清理政府部門和國有企業拖欠民營企業、中小企業賬款6647億元。進一步壓減政府定價經營服務性收費目錄,減免部分行政事業收費並降低收費標準。一般工商業平均電價再降10%,全年降低企業用電成本846億元。擴大電力直接交易規模,降低企業購電成本約790億元。降低成品油、天然氣門站價格和跨省管道運輸價格,減輕用户負擔約650億元。取消和降低鐵路、港口、民用機場部分收費,減輕企業負擔100多億元。

5) New growth areas in consumption that benefit the people continued to expand. We introduced several policies and measures to speed up commodity distribution and facilitate consumption, to improve the quality and expand the size of the domestic services sector, to unlock consumption potential in the areas of culture and tourism, to encourage fitness and sports consumption, and to promote the development of “internet-plus social services.” We stepped up support for nighttime consumption, and encouraged the purchase of new automobiles, home appliances, and electronic products to replace old ones. Comprehensive demonstrations for introducing e-commerce into rural areas were carried out. Express delivery depots in rural areas exceeded 30,000, thus covering 96.6% of all townships and towns. Total annual retail sales of consumer goods exceeded 40 trillion yuan, an increase of 8.0%. Total online retail sales nationwide reached 10.6 trillion yuan, an increase of 16.5%, with sales of goods increasing by 19.5% and accounting for 20.7% of the total retail sales of consumer goods. We successfully organized a series of activities for the 2019 Chinese Brands Day.

五是消費惠民新增長點不斷拓展。出台加快發展流通促進商業消費、促進家政服務業提質擴容、激發文化和旅遊消費潛力、促進全民健身和體育消費、促進“互聯網+社會服務”發展等政策措施,加大對夜間消費的支持力度,鼓勵汽車、家電、電子產品更新消費。電子商務進農村綜合示範深入實施,農村地區快遞網點超過3萬個,鄉鎮覆蓋率達96.6%。全年社會消費品零售總額突破40萬億元,增長8.0%。全國網上零售額達10.6萬億元,增長16.5%,其中實物商品網上零售額增長19.5%,佔社會消費品零售總額的20.7%。成功舉辦2019年中國品牌日系列活動。

6) We appropriately expanded effective investment in key areas. We published the Regulations on Government Investment, and lowered, as appropriate, capital contribution requirements for projects in priority areas. We improved the reserve mechanisms for major projects, and actively promoted the construction of projects funded by special bonds. We carried out public-private partnership (PPP) projects in a well-regulated and orderly way, and encouraged the participation of non-governmental capital in key areas to shore up points of weakness. Out of 172 major water conservancy projects, construction has already begun on 144 projects. The Plan for Developing China’s Strengths in Transportation was published. The construction of 23 national logistics hubs was steadily advanced. The preliminary work for the Chengdu-Lhasa railway progressed steadily. Beijing Daxing International Airport began operation. The construction of large hydropower stations such as Wudongde and Baihetan was accelerated. By the end of 2019, the total length of in-service railways exceeded 139,000 kilometers, including 35,000 kilometers of high-speed rail lines, the number of civil airports in service totaled 235, the total length of power grids of 220 KV and above increased by 34,000 kilometers, and trunk oil and gas pipelines increased by 4,000 kilometers. The fixed-asset investment for the year (excluding investment by rural households) rose by 5.4%, with investment from non-governmental sources growing by 4.7%, while the composition of investment witnessed a continuous improvement, with investment in high-tech industry and the social domain up 17.3% and 13.2% respectively.

六是重點領域有效投資合理擴大。發佈實施《政府投資條例》,適當降低重點領域項目資本金比例。健全重大項目儲備機制,積極推進專項債券項目建設。規範有序推進政府和社會資本合作(PPP),鼓勵民間資本參與補短板重點領域建設。172項重大水利工程已累計開工144項。印發實施交通強國建設綱要。23個國家物流樞紐建設穩步推進。川藏鐵路前期工作紮實推進,北京大興國際機場建成投運,烏東德、白鶴灘等大型水電站加快建設。2019年底,鐵路營業里程達13.9萬公里,其中高速鐵路3.5萬公里,民用運輸機場達235個,新增220千伏及以上電網裏程3.4萬公里,油氣幹線里程0.4萬公里。全年固定資產投資(不含農户)增長5.4%,其中民間投資增長4.7%;投資結構持續優化,高技術產業投資和社會領域投資分別增長17.3%和13.2%。

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